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Following are a set of P2 options you may wish to implement. No option is perfect for everyone, but sometimes options that have worked at one facility can work at yours. They might also serve as inspiration.

Reviewed Chemical - Agriculture Options

Options below have reviewed by pollution prevention specialists. They are commonly recommended and implemented for facilities.

Use plastic or foam pigs
Use plastic or foam pigs to clean products from transfer lines before equipment is rinsed. This method will reduce the amount of cleaning water needed, but will produce an additional waste stream requiring disposal.
Use specific systems for spills and area washdowns
  • Use dedicated vacuum system
  • Use dry cleaning technique
  • Use recycled water for initial clean up with actively involved supervision
Steam clean viscous products
Steam clean viscous products to eliminate wastewater generation and the need for detergent or other cleaning agents (can use steam from on-site boilers or purchase steam cleaning equipment) (Do not steam clean if volatile organic solvents or solvent inerts are present in the product because steam increases the rate of volatilization of organic compounds)
Use drums with liners
Use drums with liners as opposed to plastic drums or bags
Reducing Air Emissions from Fixed Roof Storage Tan
Methods for Reducing Air Emissions from Fixed Roof Storage Tanks:
  • Use Conservation Vents
  • Convert to floating roof tanks
  • Use nitrogen blanketing to suppress emissions and reduce material oxidation
  • Use refrigerated condensers
  • Use lean oil or carbon absorbers
  • Vapor equilibration lines
Segregate Waste Dusts and Particulates
Segregation will allow recycling of pesticide dust resulting in disposal and raw material costs.
Use Wet Scrubbers
Use a wet scrubber to reduce air emissions
Use Spinning Buckets
Use spinning buckets and implement vibration of spray plates to decrease microprill formation and fine dust loading and emissions.
Vacuum or Sweep Leaks
Sweep or vacuum dry product spills to avoid generating a wastewater stream
Collect liquid spills in a sump or trench
Collect liquid spills in a sump or trench to reuse, dispose, or discharge with a squeegee, mopping up the spill remains.
Collect liquid spills with an absorbent material
Collect liquid spills with an absorbent like absorbent pads or soda ash (can neutralize an acidic product spill) before mopping or spraying to reduce wastewater stream. These absorbents may then require disposal.
Reuse Leaked or Spilled Products
Reuse Leaked or Spilled Products when Possible Use drip pans or other containers used for catching leaks and spills (water or solvent based) for direct reuse into product being processed, formulated, packaged, or stored for a future batch.
Install collection hoppers or rubs
Install beneath packaging fillers catch and redirect spills into fillers
Bring operations indoors
Bring operations indoors or build roofs covering outdoor storage tanks and dikes
Roofs kept in good repair and designed to protect crosswinds from mixing rainwater with contaminates will reduce contaminated precipitation runoff.
Install a sump
Install a sump on a transfer or containment pad If operations are outdoors, install a containment or transfer pad (asphalt or concrete with crack sealer and top coat sealer) with a sump to collect rinse water.
Use Low Heat Removal of Carbon Dioxide
Low heat removal of carbon dioxide requires less external heat because flashing is used for part of the regeneration process than traditional systems used to remove carbon dioxide from process steam
Use Process Computer
Use to control and monitor important variables such as hydrogen/nitrogen ratio, steam/carbon ratio, synthesis loop purge, methane leakage, converter control, and refrigeration
Install a wastewater evaporator system
Install a wastewater evaporator system to reduce the amount of contaminated cooling water discharge (wastewater) and effectively make use of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate production.
Designate Laboratory Sinks to Specific Products
During laboratory equipment cleaning operations, designate laboratory sinks to specific products and collect wastewater from the testing for reuse in the same product or to transfer back to the AI manufacturer or the product registrant (solvent contaminated water resulting from quality control tests in a laboratory on solvents may not be able to be reused)
Substitute a contained water bath
Substitute a contained water bath for a continuous overflow bath to reduce the volume of water used.
Pave areas where spills occur frequently
Segregate solid waste
Store and reuse cleaning wastes
Control Air Emissions
  • Control emissions from bulk storage
  • Designate dust collection systems
  • Use automatic, enclosed cut-in hoppers
Maximize production runs
To reduce Equipment Cleaning Waste
Designate equipment hard to clean formulations
Designate equipment (possibly only mix tank or agitator) for hard to clean formulations
Package products directly
Package products directly from formulation vessels
Use raw materials to package final products
Return containers
Return containers to the supplier
Reuse containers
Reuse as directed
Strict quality control and automation
Off-Specification Products
Strict quality control and automation
Reformulating off-spec batches
Use low volume cleaning
Use low volume, high efficiency cleaning
Triple rinse
Triple rinse raw material shipping containers with solvent that will be used in the formulation so the rinsate can be directly added to the formulation. (Pesticide chemicals formulating and packaging facilities and pesticide repackaging and refilling facilities should make certain they will still be in compliance with effluent guidelines found in 40 CFR 455 Subparts C and E before implementing this change.) Use a high pressure/low volume rinse out system for triple rinsing.
Utilize Drum Rinsing Stations
Utilize these to reduce wastewater generation during shipping.
Reuse Drum Rinsate
Reuse drum rinsate directly in the formulation when appropriate or treat and reuse for imminent drum and equipment rinsing.
Schedule production to minimize tank cleanouts
Schedule production to reduce instances of product changeovers which can minimize cleanout occurrences. Schedule products in a logical order if they have common active ingredients and the same solvent (or water) base.
Schedule Products According to Packaging
Schedule Products According to Packaging to reduce changeover cleanings of packaging equipment.
Adjust Packaging Line
Minor adjustments to packaging lines may prevent using an additional set of packaging equipment which would constitute additional cleaning.
Perform Packaging Out of Formulation Vessels
Performing packaging directly out of formulation containers to prevent using additional tanks and hoses in addition to cleaning them.
Segregate equipment
Segregate equipment (processing/formulating/packaging)by individual product.
Segregate solvent formulations
Segregate solvent based and water based formulations. Dedicate a line to solvent-based products and a line to water-based products allowing for reuse of water or solvent.
Segregate products
Segregate products containing similar active ingredients in variable concentrations
Use Hand-Controlled Devices with Hoses
Prevents water flow previously generated by unattended hoses
Use wastewater reduction equipment
Equipment that reduces or eliminates wastewater generation:
  • Low-volume/high pressure hoses
  • Use low-volume/high pressure hoses to decrease the amount of wastewater generated
  • Spray nozzle attachments for hoses
  • Squeegees, wiper blades, and mops: Designate squeegees to remove a particular product from formulation containers or to be used for general housekeeping to reduce the amount of cleaning water used. This method may generate a solid waste stream which will require disposal.
  • Low volume/recirculating floor scrubbing machines
  • Portable steam cleaners
  • Drum triple rinsing stations
  • Roofs over outdoor tank farms
Clean up spills and leaks outside in bulk containm
Clean up spills and leaks outside in bulk containment areas in order to avoid contaminating storm water
Place drip pans under valves and fittings that lea
Place drip pans under valves and fittings that leak and under valves and fittings where hoses or lines are habitually connected and disconnected.
Perform preventative maintenance
Perform preventative maintenance on all valves, fittings, and pumps
Dedicate tanks for formulation mixing
This will eliminate one of the most common contaminated wastewater stream

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